They are also used as ornamentation in the Feast of the Tabernacles. 18 10 3. Valorisation des sous-produits du palmier dattier en vue de leur utilisation en alimentation du bétail. The sugar content of ripe dates is about 80%; the remainder consists of protein, fiber, and trace elements including boron, cobalt, copper, fluorine, magnesium, manganese, selenium, and zinc. Codex Alimentarius, FAO/WHO Food Standards, El-Hag, M. G. ; El-Khanjari, H. H., 1992. Conf. Whether or not the palm suffers from disease, it’s a good idea to disinfect pruning tools before using them, to avoid accidentally spreading diseases. 143 Free images of Date Palm. Typical symptoms are translucent yellow to orange spots that may be accompanied by black or necrotic spotting. However, some authors have noted that there is a discrepancy between the low gas production values (less than 20% has been reported; Genin et al., 2004) and in vitro DM digestibility, and the higher in sacco DM degradability, similar to that of a good forage such as vetch-oat hay. In North Africa, they are commonly used for making huts. The species name dactylifera "date-bearing" comes from the Greek words daktylos (δάκτυλος), which means "date" (also "finger"),[10] and fero (φέρω), which means "I bear". The flower buds are used in salad or ground with dried fish to make a condiment for bread. FAO, Rome, Hassan, A. 15pcs MINI Palm Leaves Dried, Palm Leaves, Palm Leaves Decor, Small Dried Leaves, Natural Dried Decor, Tropical Home Decor, Hawaiian Wedding KoroniArtStudio. The scientific name for the date palm tree is Phoenix dactylifera. As with pinnate leaves, if your palm has fan-shaped palmate leaves, you can narrow down its subfamily and look up palmate varieties that grow in your area. [3], Date trees typically reach about 21–23 metres (69–75 ft) in height,[7] growing singly or forming a clump with several stems from a single root system. 'Dayri', 'Deglet Nour', 'Zahdi'), and dry (e.g. In the past, sticky dates were served using specialized small forks having two metal tines (example[40]), called daddelgaffel in Scandinavia. Feeding value and. King Faisal University, Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. Land preparation, planting operation and fertilisation requirements. Date pedicels are the small stems attaching the fruits to the main stalk of the bunch. Date nut bread, a … In vivo DM digestibility of date fronds is low, values reported are between 38 and 55% (Chehma et al., 2001; Al-Yousef et al., 1993; Pascual et al., 2000), the lower values being for dry fronds (Chehma et al., 2001). Fossil records show that the date palm has existed for at least 50 million years. Not only are the fruit used for a variety of culinary purposes, but the leaves have also been used to weave baskets. Rev. The leaves are also used as a lulav in the Jewish holiday of Sukkot. Date palm cultivation. Technol., 135 (3): 210-221, Medjekal, S; Arhab, R. ; Bousseboua, H., 2011. Since the males are of value only as pollinators, this allows the growers to use their resources for many more fruit-producing female plants. Anim. There is archaeological evidence of date cultivation in Mehrgarh around 7000 BCE, a Neolithic civilization in what is now western Pakistan,[14] and in eastern Arabia between 5530 and 5320 calBC. The by-products of date production have always been recycled by farmers and local populations, a practice considered as "an eloquent example of integrated sustainable use of renewable material resources" (El-Mously, 2001). Exposure – well-lit, part sun Soil – soil mix Foliage – evergreen. The total annual world production of dates amounts to 8.5 million metric tons, countries of the Middle East and North Africa being the largest producers.[9]. [46], Date seeds are soaked and ground up for animal feed. Reflecting the maritime trading heritage of Britain, imported chopped dates are added to, or form the main basis of a variety of traditional dessert recipes including sticky toffee pudding, Christmas pudding and date and walnut loaf. on Date Palms. The date palm is a diploid, perennial, dioecious, and monocotyledonous plant adapted to arid environments. The leaves are usually attached for a portion of their length. Date palm leaves can be harvested at senescence and chopped to 2-5 cm length before being fed to animals (Arhab et al., 2006). Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used. Feedipedia, a programme by INRAE, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. Palm-leaf manuscripts are manuscripts made out of dried palm leaves. fertile gardens, about 440000 tons of the date palm leaves . Phoenix reclinata is a multitrunk palm with long, feathery green leaves and spines on leaf stems. The discarded pedicels are then used in animal feeding in the same manner as straw (Arbouche et al., 2008). Conf. Manual pollination is done by skilled labourers on ladders, or by use of a wind machine. The soil should also be free from calcium carbonate.[29]. Date nut bread, a type of cake, is very popular in the United States, especially around holidays. [53] In Psalm 92:12 "The righteous shall flourish like the palm tree". Palm Tree Date Palm. Leaves of date palm are often found to be clotted over with thin, minute, greyish scales with darker centres (Figures 117a and b). They are believed to have originated around what is now Iraq. v. sheath: New date palm leaves come out from a tender cover tissue which upon growth of the leaf remains at its base attached to its lateral edges, and surrounding the trunk of the palm. Date palm leaf waste was collected from agricultural farm areas and dried in sunlight in an open place so as to lower the moisture level to 10–15%, which is measured by dielectric meter. 20 17 2. Ripe and dry dates fruit bunches at the Khurram Abdullah Bajwa Date Farm in Medina. Apart from P. dactylifera, wild date palms such as Phoenix sylvestris and Phoenix reclinata, depending on the region, can be also tapped for sap. Dates are an important traditional crop in Iraq, Iran, Arabia, and north Africa west to Morocco. Plants grown from cuttings will fruit 2–3 years earlier than seedling plants. These variations can probably be explained by the stage of maturity (young leaves harvested green or after the onset of senescence). A diet containing 20% date leaves, 20% date pits, 49.5% barley and 10% dried fish fed young kids resulted in a similar or slightly higher voluntary DM intake, in vivo DM digestibility and weight gain when compared to a diet based on cereal grain and soybean meal (El-Hag et al., 1992). It is possible to make leaf silage after chopping the fronds and mixing them with urea, or with urea and a carbohydrate-rich material such as molasses, citrus pulp or beet pulp (Ziaei et al., 2009). Both the energy and protein values of these by-products are low, generally comparable to that of cereal straw (Arbouche et al., 2008). The nutritive value of date palm crop residues has been extensively studied due to their widespread availability in the countries where date production is important. A. ; Topps, J. H., 1993. The tree has a widespread of up to 12 ft. (4 m). World Animal Review, 73 (4), El-Mously, H., 2001. The finely ground seeds are mixed with flour to make bread in times of scarcity. In the 1920s, eleven healthy Madjool palms were transferred from Morocco to the United States where they were tended by members of the Chemehuevi tribe[which?] Its stem, strongly marked with the pruned stubs of old leaf bases, terminates in a crown of graceful, shining, pinnate leaves about 5 metres (16 feet) long. FAO plant production and protection paper, 156 rev.1. The date palm grows about 23 metres (75 feet) tall. The type of fruit depends on the glucose, fructose, and sucrose content. March 25-27, 2001, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates Univ., pp. There are also differences in feeding value between whole leaves or those with the midrib and petioles removed. Feed, 17 (6): 336-341, Mahgoub, O. ; Kadim, I. T. ; Al-Busaidi, M. H. ; Annamalai, K. ; Al-Saqri, N. M., 2007. Dates are mentioned more than 50 times in the Bible and 20 times in the Qur'an. Instead, water the palm at the base, either manually or using an irrigation system, and at a time of day that will allow the palm … 15 October 2008. Feeding lactating dairy cows with NaOH-treated and ensiled date palm leaves at 30 or 40% of the diet (based on wheat offals, poultry manure and a concentrate) resulted in lower milk yields than when the cows were fed alfalfa hay and concentrate. Dry or soft dates are eaten out-of-hand, or may be pitted and stuffed with fillings such as almonds, walnuts, pecans, candied orange and lemon peel, tahini, marzipan or cream cheese. With the release of this improved genome assembly, the UAE researchers were able to map genes for fruit color and sugar content. Dates are naturally wind pollinated, but in both traditional oasis horticulture and in the modern commercial orchards they are entirely pollinated manually. Dates are also processed into cubes, paste called 'ajwa, spread, date syrup or "honey" called "dibs" or rub in Libya, powder (date sugar), vinegar or alcohol. The protein content of the leaves varies seasonally: in Saudi Arabia, protein values for two date palm varieties were found to fluctuate between 8.5-9.5% DM in November-December and 7.5-8.0% DM in June-July (Bacha et al., 1993). Dates are one of the ingredients of HP Sauce, a popular British condiment. The leaves were chopped into smaller length segments, and further cut into pieces ranging in size from approximately 0.63–4.0 mm in a shredder machine. A major palm pest, the red palm beetle (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) currently poses a significant threat to date production in parts of the Middle East as well as to iconic landscape specimens throughout the Mediterranean world. Under cultivation the female flowers are artificially pollinated. Three main cultivar groups of date exist: soft (e.g. For best results, cut stems at a 45 degree angle and place stems in ice water three hours prior to arranging. Male and female flowers are borne on separate plants. 1. Nutr. Date Palm Print, Palm Leaves Sign, Date Plant Sign, Date Palm Leaf Print, Simple Date Palm Leaves Canvas, Tropical Wall Decor LilyandGraceAdult. FAO plant production and protection paper, 156 rev.1. The full span of the crown ranges from 6 to 10 m. Dates have been a staple food of the Middle East for thousands of years. Date palm leaves. Pollination takes place at 95 degrees (35 C.) and fruits need dry, hot temperatures with warm nights. Last updated on May 11, 2015, 14:35, Feedipedia - Animal Feed Resources Information System - INRAE CIRAD AFZ and FAO © 2012-2020 | Copyright | Disclaimer | Editor login, Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value, English correction by Tim Smith (Animal Science consultant) and Hélène Thiollet (AFZ), Al-Yousef, Y. M. ; Al-Mulhim, F. N. ; El-Hag, G. A. ; El-Gasim, E. A., 1993. Estimation du tonnage et valeur alimentaire des sous-produits du palmier dattier chez les ovins. Ren. [8], Dates have been a staple food of the Middle East and the Indus Valley for thousands of years. In organic date palm production, carbon dioxide is used instead of methyl bromide (Glasner et al., 2002). Leaf sheaths are prized for their scent, and fibre from them is also used for rope, coarse cloth, and large hats. Date seeds are also ground and used in the manner of coffee beans, or as an additive to coffee. When 4 kg of senescent date palm leaves were offered daily to dairy cows during a 196-day study, voluntary intake of the leaves ranged from 2 to 3 kg DM according to season (Bahman et al., 1993). In Pakistan, a viscous, thick syrup made from the ripe fruits is used as a coating for leather bags and pipes to prevent leaking. Proceeding of The Third Symposium on The Date Palm. Date palm seeds contain 0.56–5.4% lauric acid. Energ. Given that 1.15 million ha were planted with palm trees in 2009 (FAO, 2011) and assuming an average density of 100-125 trees/ha, it is estimated that 1.9-2.4 million tons of dry fronds are available each year (Genin et al., 2004; Klein et al., 2002). The leaflets are 30 cm (12 in) long and 2 cm (0.79 in) wide. Historically, Palm leaves were used as one of the original materials for manuscripts and had been found dating back to the 5th century in parts of Southeast Asia. Al-Yousef et al., 1993; Genin et al., 2004, Arbouche et al., 2008; Chehma et al., 2001, Heuzé V., Tran G., Delagarde R., 2015. Recherche Agronomique, 7: 7-15, Chehma, A. ; Longo, H. F., 2001. I-Potentialities and traditional utilisation. Dates are one of the ingredients of jallab, a Middle-Eastern fruit syrup. Various parts of this plant have been used medicinally to … Valorisation of date-palm by-products (DPBP) for livestock feeding in Southern Tunisia. 2. roceeding of The Second Symposium on The Date Palm. Pygmy date palms (Phoenix roebelenii) are slow-growing palms that are hardy in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 9 through 11. Floral spikes branch from the axils of leaves that emerged the previous year. In goats, the voluntary intake of pedicels was similar to that of whole leaves but lower than that of leaflets (52 vs.70g/kg W 0.75/d) and their DM digestibility was lower (44% vs. 54%) (Pascual et al., 2000). Date palms require well-drained deep sandy loam soils with a pH of 8-11 (i.e., alkali). The tree is between 15 and 25 metres (49 and 82 feet) high. The most important are: The Gaza Strip, especially Deir al-Balah ("Village of Dates"), is known for its exceptionally sweet red dates. Select from premium Date Palm Leaves of the highest quality. on Date Palms. [17] The date palm was a popular garden plant in Roman peristyle gardens, though it would not bear fruit in the more temperate climate of Italy. Related Images: palm dates tree phoenix palm tree date tropical fruit plant. The leaves are 4–6 metres (13–20 ft) long, with spines on the petiole, and pinnate, with about 150 leaflets. A date palm cultivar, probably what used to be called Judean date palm, is renowned for its long-lived orthodox seed, which successfully sprouted after accidental storage for 2000 years. Not all cities and countries have benefited with the date palms resilience and ease of growth. The darker spot is oval in outline and is the body of the insect itself. Date palm cultivation. [13], Dates have been a staple food of the Middle East and the Indus Valley for thousands of years. These arch out from the top of tall thick stems that grow to between 30 and 50 ft. (9 – 15 m) high. Delores Johnson / The National. [42] These have generally been replaced by an inexpensive pale-colored knobbled plastic fork that resembles a date branch (example[43]), which is traditionally included with numerous brands of prepackaged trays of dates (example), though this practice has declined in response to increased use of resealable packaging and calls for fewer single-use plastics. This is just asking for a fungal disease. It belongs to the palm family. 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Experimental studies have shown that feeding mice with the aqueous extract of date pits exhibit anti-genotoxic and reduce DNA damage induced by N-nitroso-N-methylurea. 211-215, Khorchani, T. ; Hammadi, M. ; El-Jani, H. ; Genin, D. ; Sakkal, K. ; Abdouli, H., 2004. "Date Palm". King Faisal University, Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. Effect of feeding date palm leaf silage to Holstein cows on their performance. 16 6 1. [citation needed] Evidence of cultivation is continually found throughout later civilizations in the Indus Valley, including the Harappan period of 2600 to 1900 BCE. Apparent in vivo DM, NDF and ADF digestibilities of this diet were only 39, 33 and 25%, respectively, explaining the low animal performance. In some species, the entire structure can grow at least 8 feet (2.4 m) wide! For example, Canary Island Date palms are vulnerable to Texas Phoenix Palm Decline (TPPD) also known as Lethal Bronzing, a disease that yellows palm leaves in its early … King Faisal University, Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. Some growers do not even maintain any male plants, as male flowers become available at local markets at pollination time. Pedicels are more or less comparable to fronds, but actual results depend probably on the precise nature of the materials offered to (and eaten by) the animals. Dry or soft dates are eaten out-of-hand, or may be pitted and stuffed with fillings such as almonds, walnuts, pecans, candied orange and lemon peel, tahini, marzipan or cream cheese. Pesticide residue analysis of date palm fruits by gas chromatography mass spectrophotometry. Nutritive value of date palm leaves and, Bacha, M. A. ; El-Shamy, H. A. ; Nasr, T. A., 1993. Date palm leaves, like cereal straw, can be treated with ammonia to improve their protein value and DM digestibility (Hassan, 2006; Arbouche et al., 2008). In 2009, a team of researchers at the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar published a draft version of the date palm genome (Khalas variety). However, urea-treated ensiled date palm fronds, supplemented by a concentrate made of local by-products, was shown to support only the maintenance requirements of growing sheep and very low weight gain over 120 days (Mahgoub et al., 2007). 5 out of 5 stars (1,663) 1,663 reviews $ 14.99. Silage can also be made from chopped stems or fronds (45%) mixed with cull dates (35%), wheat bran and urea (Khorchani et al., 2004). They are used as roof rafters, grids, fences, flooring for small huts, fishing rod, simple furniture, crates, and burned for fuel or converted into charcoal. Pygmy date palm or Phoenix roebelenii is a palm tree, often grown indoors, that bears thin, elegant green leaves.. Key Pygmy date palm facts. [47], Stripped fruit clusters are used as brooms. A date palm tree can produce 13.5-20 kg of dry fronds annually (Chehma et al., 2001; Pascual et al., 2000). Phoenix dactylifera, commonly known as date or date palm,[2] is a flowering plant species in the palm family, Arecaceae, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit. The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation. January 1993 (Rajab,1413) Vol. These by-products are usually distributed to animals during winter, though they can also be used year round (Genin et al., 2004). Thousands of date palm cultivars and selections exist in different date-growing countries. Dates were introduced into Mexico and California by the Spaniards in 1765, around Mission San Ignacio. Your Pygmy palm's growth cycle will naturally result in yellowing leaves as the tree's older leaves are replaced by new, green fronds. 'Thoory'). [16], In Ancient Rome the palm fronds used in triumphal processions to symbolize victory were most likely those of Phoenix dactylifera. From shop LilyandGraceAdult. Rural Dev., 20 (6): 97, Arhab, R. ; Macheboeuf, D. ; Doreau, M. ; Bousseboua, H., 2006. Tree Trees Palm Dates. The full span of the crown ranges from 6–10 m (20–33 ft). II, Arbouche, S. ; Arbouche, H. S., 2008. When Muslims break fast in the evening meal of Ramadan, it is traditional to eat a date first. Mature leaves are also made into mats, screens, baskets and fans. It has been observed that sheep do not eat the racemes whole but select the less tough pedicels. Date leaves are found in the plantations as a result of annual pruning (. [11] The fruit is known as a date. The date palm tree is a tall and evergreen tree that has no branches. They do not all ripen at the same time so several harvests are required. Asna Moazzam from ard ارض hosts a one-hour live demo of Sa’af, the ancient Emirati technique of weaving with date palm leaves. 866-886, FAO, 2011. In the Bible palm trees are referenced as symbols of prosperity and triumph. Date fruits are oval-cylindrical, 3–7 cm (1.2–2.8 in) long, and 2–3 cm (0.79–1.18 in) diameter, and when ripe, range from bright red to bright yellow in colour, depending on variety. Date palm crop residues are all low-protein, high fibre by-products, mostly suitable for ruminants as a source of fibre. In later times, traders spread dates around South West Asia, northern Africa, and Spain. Canary Island Date palms or majesty palms can suffer from any one of the offenders mentioned above. Date fruit production yields several crop residues, including date palm leaves (fronds), leaf petioles, racemes (without the dates) and pedicels. Date pedicels are similar to straw and should be used in the same way in ruminants (Arbouche et al., 2008). Young date leaves are cooked and eaten as a vegetable, as is the terminal bud or heart, though its removal kills the palm. Nine of these survived and in 1935, cultivars were transferred to the "U.S. B. ; Botes, A. ; Zaid, A. ; Emmens, J., 2002. 'Barhee', 'Halawy', 'Khadrawy', 'Medjool'); semi-dry (e.g. They are particularly available to eat whole at Christmas time. Pesticides residues in Food and feed. Palm leaves were used as writing materials in South Asia and in Southeast Asia dating back to the 5th century BCE and possibly much earlier. Dates can also be dehydrated, ground and mixed with grain to form a nutritious stockfeed. Most commercial plantations thus use cuttings of heavily cropping cultivars. In Southeast Spain (where a large date plantation exists including UNESCO-protected Palmeral of Elche) dates (usually pitted with fried almond) are served wrapped in bacon and shallow fried, served with ranch dressing. Date by-products from south-east Algeria: effects of treatment with urea and the mode of storage on their chemical composition and digestibility. [3] The species is widely cultivated across Northern Africa, the Middle East, the Horn of Africa and South Asia, and is naturalized in many tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Dates and sardines as potential animal feed resources. The ancient Egyptians used the fruits to make date wine, and ate them at harvest. Sheep fed date pedicels ate less DM (26 g/kg W0.75/d) than those fed palm leaves but in vivo DM digestibility of the date pedicels was higher (48%) than for palm leaves. Symptoms vary among palm species, but occur first on the oldest leaves and affect progressively newer leaves as the deficiency becomes more severe. Palm leaves were also used as construction materials for fences, walls, and roofs. At about 61-68 percent sugar by mass when dried, dates are a very sweet fruit. Date palms appear in the archaeological record in North Africa about 2,800 years ago, suggesting that the hybrid was spread by the Minoans or Phoenicians.[22]. March 1986, VOL II, 221-233, Narendran, R. ; Sohail, M. A. ; Al Mustafa, A. I. ; Humaydan, M. S., 1986. Date palm leaves and their petioles can be used to feed livestock. Vinegar made from dates was a traditional product of the Middle East. Crude fibre digestibility (49%) was similar to that of the leaves (Chehma et al., 2001). Nutritive value assessment of some desert by-products by gas production and rumen fermentation, Narendran, R. ; Sohail, M. A. ; Al Mustafa, A. I. ; Humaydan, M. S., 1986. [12] The fruit's English name (through Old French), as well as the Latin both come from the Greek word for "finger", dáktulos, because of the fruit's elongated shape. Palm branches occurred as iconography in sculpture ornamenting the Second Jewish Temple in Jerusalem, on Jewish coins, and in the sculpture of synagogues. The replacement of barley straw by date palm leaves (4 kg DM/d) has no effect on milk yield (15 kg/d) and total daily DM intake (16.8 kg DM) (Bahman et al., 1997). Possibilités d'utilisation des sous produits du palmier dattier pour l’engraissement du dromadaire et du mouton. FAO, Rome, Lee, N. H. ; Kim, C. W. ; Song, K. S. ; Kim, H. M. ; Park, B. S. ; Yoon, C. S. ; Han, C. K. ; Sohail, M. A., 1993. Like straw, palm leaves can be treated with urea to improve their nutritive value. January 1993, 265-272, Bahman, A. M. ; Rooket, J. [18] It is recognizable in frescoes from Pompeii and elsewhere in Italy, including a garden scene from the House of the Wedding of Alexander.[19]. The industrial use of the date palm residues: an eloquent example of sustainable development. Cahiers Agricultures, 13 (2): 221-226, Mars-Avril 2004, Étude originale, Codex Alimentarius, 2011. Effect of feeding date palm leaf silage to Holstein cows on their performance. Eventually this stock was reintroduced to Africa and led to the U.S. production of dates in Yuma, Arizona, and the Bard Valley in California.[34]. Use of date palm leaves in high concentrate diets for lactating Friesian and Holstein cows. Seasonal changes of macro-nutrients in the folialge of date palm. Sandra Piesik built this dwelling in Al Ain from date-palm leaves and has written a book on traditional uses of arish. Ard ارض and DesignAware have partnered with social initiative Sougha by the Khalifa Fund for Enterprise Development which is shaping the future of Emirati artisans by preserving the UAE’s heritage and fostering sustainable entrepreneurial opportunities. Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Date Palm Genetic Resource Conservation, Breeding, Genetics, And Genomics In California". March 1986, VOL II, 235-244, Pascual, J. J. ; Fernandez, C. ; Diaz, J. R. ; Garces, C. ; Rubert-Aleman, J., 2000. It grows 40-50 feet tall and 25-40 feet wide.